Research Bibliography – Impacts of Shellfish Industry in Baynes Sound

Recent publications related to the use of our foreshore for shellfish aquaculture purposes and the occurrence of cadmium in BC shellfish include:

  • McKormick, J., St.Clair, T., and L.I. Bendell. 2013. Trace metal concentrations and partitioning in biofilm; implications for metal bioavailability to shorebirds. Ecotoxicology. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-013-1856-y
  • Bendell, L.I. 2013. The cadmium conundrum in British Columbian oysters: Economics, Ecotoxicology and Ethics. Invited book chapter. For : Oysters: Biology, Consumption and Ecological Importance. Nova publishers.
  • Bendell, L.I. 2013. Evidence for the decline of the native littleneck clam as a result of the intentional introduction of the non-native Manila clam. Estuaries and Coasts DOI 10.1007/s12237-013-9677-1.
  • Chan, K, L.I. Bendell 2013. Potential effects of an invasive bivalve, Nuttallia obscurata, on biogeochemical cycling in the intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,
  • Seaweed Harvest Report, May 19/13, I. K. Birtwell, R. C. de Graaf, D. E. Hay, and G. R. PetersonRamona de Graaf, I. K. Birtwell, D. E. Hay, and G. R. Peterson.
  • Bendell, L.I. 2012. Changes in the community composition of the intertidal in relation to the shellfish aquaculture industry. Oceans and Coastal Management under review.
  • Bendell, L.L. 2011. Sea Ducks and Aquaculture-the cadmium connection. Ecotoxicology. 20:474-478: 10.1007/s10646-010-0584-y
  • Feng, C.X., Cao, J and L.I Bendell 2010. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in Pacific Oysters from British Columbia. Biometrics.
  • Bendell, L.I. 2010. Cadmium in shellfish-the British  Columbian experience a mini-review. Invited contribution-Special issue on cadmium health aspects.  Toxicology Letters. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.04.102.
  • Bendell, L.I. 2010. Cadmium in shellfish-the British  Columbian experience a mini-review. Invited contribution-Special issue on cadmium health aspects.  Toxicology Letters. 198: 7-12.
  • Wan, P. and L.I. Bendell, 2010. Use of aerial photography and GIS to estimate the extent of an anthropogenic footprint. Journal of Coastal Conservation..  On-line-DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0101-8 .
  • Bendell, L.I., C. Duckham, T. L’Eserpence, J. Whiteley. 2010. Changes in the geochemical attributes of the foreshore as a consequence of intertidal shellfish aquaculture. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 404:91-108.
  • Cook, N., and L.I. Bendell. 2010. Predator preference in the moonsnail I. Journal of Shellfish Research.  29: 223-232.
  • Bendell, L.I. 2009. Cadmium in shellfish from the Pacific Northwest. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2: 121-139
  • Christie, J. and L.I. Bendell-Young 2009. Using C and N stable isotopes to determine the role of diet variability on cadmium exposure in oysters located in Barkley Sound (Canada). Marine Environmental Research. 68: 97-105.
  • Bendell, L.I., and Feng. C. 2009. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations and burdens in the Pacific oysters sampled form the Pacific Northwest. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1137-1143.
  • Widmeyer, J., and L.I. Bendell-Young. 2008. Use of stable isotopes to indicate feeding preferences in the pacific oyster. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 55: 442-452
  • Widmeyer, J. and L.I. Bendell-Young. 2007. Contrasting cadmium uptake by filter-feeding mussels between two ecosystems; the role of salinity. Aquatic Toxicology. 81 (2): 144-151
  • Whiteley, J., and L.I. Bendell-Young 2007. Ecological Implications of Intertidal Mariculture: Observed Differences in Bivalve Community Structure between Farm and Reference Sites.  Journal of Applied Ecology. 44: 495-505. Study on the difference in the beach composition, species variety and productivity of clams between a netted (farmed) and unnetted (reference site) beach.
  • C S A S, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Shellfish Aquaculture and Marine Habitat Sensitivity Case Studies, 2006 –
  • Bendell-Young, L. I. 2006. Contrasting the community structure and select geochemical characteristics of three intertidal regions in relation to shellfish farming. Environmental Conservation, 33: 21-27.
  • Activities and Potential Environmental Effects Associated with Shellfish Aquaculture in Baynes Sound: A Discussion Document. Prepared by Brian Emmett, Archipelago Marine Research Ltd. Prepared for: Joe Truscott, Coast Marine Planning Office, Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management. March 8, 2002.
  • Jamieson, G.S., L. Chew, G. Gillespie, A. Robinson, L. Bendell-Young, W. Heath, B. Bravender, D. Nishimura, and P. Doucette. 2001. Phase 0 review of the environmental impacts of inter-tidal shellfish aquaculture in Baynes Sound. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Ottawa, Ontario. 103p.
  • Baynes Sound/Lambert Channel-Hornby Island Waters Important Bird Areas Conservation Plan. Barry P. Booth, R. P. Bio., Community Conservation Planner, Canadian Nature Federation, Federation of BC Naturalists, Wild Bird Trust of BC, Important Bird Areas Program. April 2001
  • A Review of the Impacts of Shellfish Aquaculture Lease Operations on Marine and Shorebird Species in Baynes Sound, British Columbia (Axys et al. 2000).
  • BC Shore Spawners Alliance at
  • Surf Smelt and Pacific Sand Lance Spawning Ecology In BC
  • For Bird Info in Baynes Sound:  or the Baynes Sound/Lambert Channel-Hornby Island Waters Important Bird Areas Conservation Plan: at


About the Scientists

Dr. Leah Bendell
PhD University of Toronto
Professor (Ecotoxicology), Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Simon Fraser University

“I chose my career for a very simple reason . . . . I wanted to make a difference and contribute to protecting and maintaining the integrity of our environment.”

Leah Bendell is a professor in the Faculty of Science and is past-director of environmental science in the Faculty of Environment. She is interested in the environment, how we impact it, and what the consequences are so that we can restore the environment to something similar to what it used to be.

Click here to watch a short video clip with more information on Leah Bendell’s work.


Ramona C. de Graaf BSc. (Hons), MSc.
Research Coordinator and Consultant

Ramona de Graaf is a marine biologist, forage fish specialist, marine educator, and researcher. She has been studying and surveying forage fish habitats since 2000. She has studied marine systems from the deep sea to eelgrass, marine population genetics, cetaceans, and plankton. She is the principal of Emerald Sea Biological.

  • Ramona launched the BC Shore Spawners Alliance, a project of Sea Watch Society, which currently has 27 communities involved in volunteer forage fish survey efforts at 32 beaches. A handful of ADIMS and Denman Island volunteers were trained in 2010 and have been participating in this effort since then.
  • Protocols developed by Dan Penttila are used to identify forage fish spawning habitat and help communities write bylaws for beach protection.
  • Created an online forage fish atlas on the Community Mapping Network to provide information to management agencies for permitting in BC.
Click here for the Friends of Forage Fish facebook page.
Click here for Forage Fish Atlas and Data Management System | Community Mapping Network.